To study the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity in high-risk neonates and the risk factors associated with the disease
Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a complex disease of the developing retinal vasculature in premature infant. The challenge in India is that a large number of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) don’t have an effective ROP screening strategy. Objective: To measure the incidence of ROP in neonates with gestational age (≤32 weeks) or weighing <2000 g with risk factors and evaluation of risk factor associated with ROP. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics and Ophthalmology from January to July 2016. Neonates with gestational age ≤32 weeks, birth weight (BW) ≤1500 g, and selected preterm infants with a BW between 1501 and 2000 g with risk factors admitted in NICU/special new-born care unit were included in the study and screened for ROP by trained ophthalmologist under supervision of the pediatrician. All data were analyzed using SPSS or MedCalc. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was done to determine the risk factors for the development of any ROP. Result: The incidence of ROP in our study was 19%. 4% of the neonates have severe (early treatment for ROP [ETROP] Type 1) ROP while 15% have non-severe (ETROP Type 2) ROP. 8 neonates developed Stage 1 ROP (42.11%), 7 developed Stage 2 (36.84%), and 4 neonates developed Stage 3 ROP (21.05%). Conclusion: The current study revealed that the incidence of ROP in sick neonates was 19%. Significant risk factors were found to be low BW, low gestational age, supplemental oxygen, and mechanical ventilation, culture proven sepsis, anemia, apnea, and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).