Study of echocardiography in thalassemia (major/intermedia) patients at tertiary care center
Objective: The objective of this study is to study the cardiovascular complications and to establish the role of echocardiography (ECHO) screening in beta thalassemia major (TM) and intermedia patients, aged 2–12 years, receiving one or more transfusions per month for 2 or more years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done at tertiary care center from June 2015 to November 2015. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and 2D ECHO were done before the blood transfusion. Results: Male preponderance was seen with a ratio of 1.7:1. 87% (n=47) had TM and remaining had thalassemia intermedia (TI). Serum ferritin in TM was >1000 ng/ml in 80.9% (n=38) of cases and <1000 ng/ml in 19% (n=9) of cases. Serum ferritin in TI was above 1000 ng/ml in 42.8% (n=3) and <1000 ng/ml in 57.14% (n=4) of cases. 64% (n=35) had cardiomegaly in X-ray. 2D Echo showed increased LV mass in 71.1% (n=27) of cases and normal LV mass in 28.9% (n=11) of cases. Pulmonary hypertension was seen in 21.2% (n=10) of cases of TM and 42% (n=3) of cases with TI. Conclusion: ECHO combined with electrocardiogram should be used for regular periodic monitoring of transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients.