Tracheostomy among pediatric patients: A review
Tracheostomy is a surgical procedure which has been performed since ancient time. Tracheostomy is a life-saving surgical procedure done among critically sick patients. Children with airway compromise often require tracheostomy. The indication of the tracheostomy among children ranges from airway obstruction to prolonged mechanical ventilator support. There are numerous research papers published for adult tracheostomy with its indications, operative technique, and complications, but the literature on pediatric tracheostomy is scarce. Advanced technique of pediatric anesthesia and increased awareness for vaccination for serious diseases such as polio, measles, diphtheria, tetanus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) among children increased the changing indication for tracheostomy from emergency to more elective procedure. Standardization of the procedure, timing, and exact indications is helping to reduce the mortality related to the tracheostomy among the pediatric patients. Here, we attempt to discuss the indications, techniques, selection of the tracheostomy tube complications, and outcome of the tracheostomy among pediatric patients.
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