Congenital tuberculosis with multisystem involvement
Congenital tuberculosis is an uncommon condition, but in a country like India, where largest tuberculosis burden is found, there should be an eye on early diagnosis and management of this condition so as to prevent the devastating consequences of this disease considering the absence of specific pathogenic signs and symptoms. Here, we present a case of congenital tuberculosis in a newborn who was admitted on the 17th day after birth with the complaint of difficulty in breathing and lethargy for 3 days. On observing the antenatal history, it was found that mother after conception was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis and was inadequately treated. The clinical indexes included no increase in body weight, hepatosplenomegaly, lethargy, and emaciated appearance. The treatment was initiated with antibiotics in intravenous form along with 4-drug antitubercular treatment (ATT). The 4-drug ATT was stopped after 1 week due to negative outcome in the tubercular screening, which leads to respiratory complications. The 4-drug ATT regimen was started again after a week on clinical basis which resulted in significant improvement within a few days. Hence, the present case presents a perspective that congenital tuberculosis can be considered in a newborn when mother has a history of tuberculosis before or during pregnancy.
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