Etiological study of bone marrow aspiration cytology in children in a tertiary care government hospital in India with a special focus on adolescent females
Background: Bone marrow aspiration (BMA) cytology is a common and cheap technique which reveals the marrow cellularity, its structure, and stages of differentiation of different blood cells. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to study the etiology and the common presentation in patients undergoing BMA in pediatric age group with special focus on the adolescent females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics and Pathology of a Medical College Hospital of Bihar, India. The study was done from May 1, 2018, to April 31, 2019, on 259 cases. BMA was carried out and relevant clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory data were retrieved. Results: Out of 259 cases, 1 case was excluded from the final analysis due to inadequate marrow. Male-to-female ratio was 1.16:1. The most common indication was unexplained anemia (46.5%) and pancytopenia (26.7%). The most common etiological diagnosis was nutritional anemia (27.5%) followed by hypoplastic anemia (22%). Among adolescents (>11–18 years), male:female ratio decreased to 1:1 where nutritional anemia was the most common cause followed by hypoplastic anemia. Conclusion: The common hematological disorders prevailing in our community in pediatric age group are nutritional anemia, hypoplastic anemia, and acute leukemia.