Maternal anthropometry in relation to birth weight of newborn: A prospective hospital based study
Background: Birth weight of neonate is probably the most important factor that affects the future survival and quality of life of the neonates. Objective: To study the maternal anthropometric parameters in relation to birth weight of neonate. Methods: This observational case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in central India from March 2013 to September 2014. Low birth weight (LBW) neonates (<2.5 kg) and their mothers were taken as cases, and normal birth weight (NBW) neonates (≥2.5 kg) and their mothers were taken as controls. Data regarding demographic profile, maternal and neonatal anthropometry, antenatal, and natal events were recorded. Results: Of total 600 subjects, 300 neonates were LBW (cases) and 300 were NBW (controls). Mean birth weight was 2.05±0.252 kg (in cases) and 2.9±0.295 kg (in control). The weight of 59.3% mothers in the case group was below 50 kg (odds ratio [OR] - 3.4) and height was <150 cm (OR - 1.22). Mean maternal body mass index (BMI) in study and control group was 21.73±0.25 and 22.06±0.87, respectively (p<0.0677). BMI ranged from 21.5 to 22 in 85% of NBW and 19% of LBW neonates, and from 22.1 to 22.9 in 81% of LBW and 15% of NBW babies. Mean maternal mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) in this study and control group were 20±2.13 cm and 25.5±1.36 cm, respectively (p<0.0001). Maternal MUAC was 19-23 cm in 81% of LBW babies and 23-27 cm in mothers of NBW babies (OR - 24). Conclusion: MUAC can be used as an easy cost-effective tool to identify mother at risk of delivering LBW babies so that they can be subjected appropriate care intervention at hospital and home to improve the perinatal outcome.