Estimation of Leptin Levels in Serum in Periodontal Health and Disease: A Clinical and Biochemical Study
Introduction: Leptin is a hormone secreted by the adipocytes. As the periodontal breakdown increases, leptin concentration in serum increases with the destruction of the periodontium, but the evidence for this association is not so strong. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate the serum leptin levels in healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis group. Materials and methods: Total 75 patients were selected and divided into three groups. Healthy (BOP < 30%, PD ≤ 4 mm), gingivitis (BOP ≥ 30%, PD ≤ 4 mm) and periodontitis (PD ≥ 4 mm). The clinical parameters that evaluated were OHI-S, PI, PD and % of BOP at baseline, 15 days and 1 month. Also, blood was collected from the anticubical fossa and was analyzed for Leptin ELISA test. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in all clinical parameters at the end of 15 days and 1 month. In healthy group, there was strong association between OHI-S and serum leptin levels. Whereas in gingivitis group, there was a statistically significant association between OHI-S, PD and serum leptin levels than in periodontitis group. Conclusion: In our study, as the periodontal disease progressed, there was raise in serum leptin concentration in gingivitis (p < 0.005) but these results did not remain consistent for periodontitis group. From, this we can say that for leptin to be an inflammatory marker and risk indicator or risk predictor in the progression of periodontal diseases further studies are needed.