Maanasa: An early individualized remedial educational intervention model for scholastic backwardness among upper primary students

R Jayaprakash, K Rajamohanan


Background: Scholastic backwardness is called as the learning achievement which is below the expected for a given age, cognitive skills, and schooling. Early identification and remedial measures are to be initiated at school level to control its lifelong impact. Objective: The objective of this study is to evolve an early individualized, remedial educational intervention model for the scholastic backwardness among upper primary students at the school level by the resource teachers. Materials and Methods: Whole upper primary students of the four government schools of the South Maararikkulam Grama Panchayath constituted the study population. The scholastic backwardness among them was identified and referred to specially trained resource teachers who were appointed in the schools under Maanasa project. They were graded as mild, moderate and severe category based on the level of scholastic backwardness. Children were given 1 academic year of individualized educational intervention along with inclusive education. Apart from these interventions, families of the identified students were given psychosocial interventions to create a learning-friendly atmosphere in their families. Learning skills of the scholastically backward students were re-assessed at the end of academic year. Results: Out of total 629 students, 147 had scholastic backwardness (23.7%). Among these, 68 had mild, 60 moderate, and 19 had severe scholastic backwardness on reading skill grading. Psychosocial problems including alcoholism, domestic violence, quarrelsome events, and abandoned family were noticed among 48.7% of the parents of scholastically backward students. Reassessment at the end of academic year showed improvement of scholastic skill among 52.38% of the students. Conclusion: The present study proves that scholastic backwardness can be successfully approached and intervened at school level itself by imparting individualized educational interventions by trained resource teachers. The parents should be taken into confidence for successful intervention.


Early individualized educational intervention, Family intervention, Resource teacher, Scholastic backwardness

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